Full Research

Assessment of Constraints Faced by Farm Women in Adaptation Strategies towards Climate Change

A. Pandey and P. Arya

  • Page No:  139 - 144
  • Published online: 12 May 2022
  • DOI: HTTPS://DOI.ORG/10.23910/2/2022.0456a

  • Abstract
  •  navyapandey2015@gmail.com

The present study was conducted in Bikaner district of Rajasthan during 2020–21 to identify constraint faced by farm women in adaptation strategies towards climate change. The district is surrounded by Sri Ganganagar district to the North and lies in the Thar Desert. The study was conducted with sample size of 280 farm women. A total of two Panchayat Samities were selected by lottery method i.e., Khajuwala and Kolayat. Thus, a total of four Gram Panchayats was selected for the study. Further, two villages from each Gram Panchayat were selected by simple random sampling method. Hence, a total of eight villages were selected for the present study purpose. Further, Thirty five farm women from each (eight) villages will be selected for the final sample size of the study through random sampling. The primary data was collected personally with the help of an interview schedule which was prepared to identify the socio-economic characteristics, communication characteristics and constraints. Ranking method was used based on percentage of the constraints for the analysis of data. Overall twenty six constraints were listed out. The results of the present study revealed the major constraints faced by farm womenwhichwereinadequate/ limited knowledge concerning climate change and adaptation measures and lack of access to weather forecasting technology (Rank I), Lack of training programs on adaptation to climate programs (Rank II), Lack of knowledge about government policies/programs and poor extension services related to climate change assigned Rank III.

Keywords :   Climate change, constraints, adaptation measures, farm women, agriculture

  • Introduction

    Climate change has been measured as the most vital issue affecting the survival of the human race in the 21st century. Climate change and agriculture are interrelated processes (Parry et al., 2007). Studies indicate that Indian agriculture will be negatively affected by climate change (Aggarwal et al., 2009). The evidence for rapid climate change now seems overwhelming. Participatory researches conducted by World Bank in a number of African countries revealed that rains have become lesser in duration and areas are becoming hotter and drier (Maddison, 2007). Global temperatures are predicted to rise up to 4°C by 2100, with associated alterations in precipitation patterns. Assessing the consequences for biodiversity, and how they might be mitigated, is a Grand Challenge in ecology (Thuiller, 2007). There are numerous studies reported on rural adaptation to climate change reveal that climate is one of the major factors influencing local adaptation strategies (Nielsen and Reenberg, 2010; Mertz et al., 2011; Diallo et al., 2012; Dieye and Roy, 2012). Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry and fisheries accounted 13.7% of the GDP in 2013, and employed 50% of the workforce (Dhawan, 2017). Agriculture in India mostly depends on south west monsoon which contributes about 75% of the rainfall.

    Women’s contribution to agriculture has been found to be considerable, the major contribution being in livestock-based activities (60−90%). Agriculture employs 60% of the total female working population in South Asia (ILO, 2016). Emerging literature in the area of climate change adaptation and gender in agriculture has been increasingly highlighting the need to focus on women farmers (Nyasimi and Huyer, 2017; Kristjanson et al., 2017). Women make necessary contributions to agricultural as well as rural economies in all the developing countries. Rural women in particular are reported to be at high risk of negative impacts from climate change (Kakota et al., 2011). Their roles differ significantly between and within regions which are changing rapidly in numerous parts of the world, because they have less access to agricultural resources such as land, extension services and inputs with which to adapt to variability and change, and because gendered social norms and roles can inhibit women’s adaptive capacity (Doss, 2011; Anonymous, 2011; Kakota et al., 2011; Nelson and Stathers, 2009; Peterman, et al., 2010; Wright and Chandani, 2014) where the economic and social forces are changing the agricultural sector. Women play a crucial role in all farm-related activities from land preparation to marketing. They contribute a higher proportion of labor in agricultural sector than men. The increasing role that rural women are playing in smallholder agriculture provides an important opportunity to positively impact food production and security in a changing climate (Carvajal-Escobar et al., 2008). Rural women perform various labor-intensive jobs such as weeding, hoeing, grass cutting, picking, cotton stick collection, seed separation from fiber, livestock keeping and its other associated activities such as milking, milk processing, preparation of ghee, etc. Farm women face multiple constraints for production, including those related to social and gender norms and limited resource access, which are further magnified in the wake of climate change (Nyasimi and Huyer, 2017). The studies also show that women have developed a huge number of strategies to deal with climate change conditions as the women are reacting to changes the best they can. It is known that climate change impact not only intensifies poverty, it also strengthens the existing gender inequalities related to access to resources necessary to cope with climate change (Demetriades and Esplen, 2008).

    Therefore, the objective of the study is to assess the constraints faced by farm women in adaptation strategies towards climate change. 


  • Materials and Methods

    2.1.  Study site

    Present study was conducted during 2020−21 in Bikaner district of Rajasthan. The district is surrounded by Sri Ganganagar district to the North and lies in the Thar Desert (Dhawal, 2019). It has a hot semi-arid climate with very slight rainfall and extreme temperatures. In summer temperatures can exceed 48°C, and during the winter they may dip below freezing. The climate in Bikaner is characterized by significant variations in temperature. It is very hot in summer season when the temperatures lie in the range of 28–53.5 °C (82.4–128.3°F). It is fairly cold in winters with temperatures lying in the range of −4–23.2°C (24.8–73.8°F).Annual rainfall is in the range of 260–440 mm. According to Brien et al. (2004) most vulnerable map, purposively as it comes in the Thar Desert where impact of climate change is seen.

    2.1.1.  Selection of panchayat samities

    Total seven Panchayat Samities are there in Bikaner district which are namely–Bikaner, Khajuwala, Kolayat, Lunkaransar, Nokha, Sridungargarh & Panchu. A total of two Panchayat Samities i.e. Khajuwala and Kolayat have been selected by lottery method.

    2.1.2.  Selection of gram panchayats and villages

    Two Gram Panchayats from each selected Panchayat Samities had taken. Thus, a total of four Gram Panchayat was selected for the study. Further, two villages from each Gram Panchayat were selected by simple random sampling method. Hence, a total of eight villages were selected for the present study.

    2.1.3.  Selection of respondents

    The population for present study comprised of farm women from Bikaner district of Rajasthan state.Thirty five farm women from each (eight) village was selected for the study through random sampling. Therefore, a total of 280 farm women have been selected for the present study.

    2.2.  Method of data collection

    The primary data was collected personally with the help of an interview schedule and the farm women were selected through simple random method. The interviews were conducted on farm women’s homes through face-to-face contact (Bayarta and Bonnel, 2015). The interview schedule was prepared to study the socio-economic characteristics like age, education, farm size and farming experience as well as communication characteristics like extension personnel contact, mass media utilization and social participation and constraints faced by farm women with the help of literature review, discussion with experts of relevant department. A total of 26 constraints were listed out and were asked in Yes/No format and were calculated with the help of frequency and percentage. The constraints were ranked on the basis of the percentage who reported respective constraint.


  • Results and Discussion

    3.1.  Socio-economic characteristics

    The socio-economic characteristics were mainly concerned with the social and economic aspects of the farm women such as age, education, farm size and farming experience. Differences of these factors are accountable for the variations in these characteristics of the farm women.

    The data presented in Table 1 showed that majority of respondents (42.5%) were from the age group of 30 to 41 years followed by 26.8% respondents were from age group of 42 to 53 years. Further, 17.1% and 13.6% of respondents were from age group above 53 years and below 30 years of age respectively.


    The majority of the farm women (38.6%) were illiterate, followed by 33.6% of farm women who had primary level of education, 12.1% had middle level of education and 7.9% had high school level of education. Further, 6.4% and only 1.4% of farm women had intermediate and degree level of education respectively. The result was similar to Bishnoi (2013) who found majority of farm women were illiterate.

    The majority of the respondents (45.7%) had small farm size, followed by 29.3% and 13.2% had marginal and semi medium farm size respectively. Moreover 8.6% of the respondents had medium farm size. Very few i.e. 3.2% of them were having large farm size. The result was in support with Rastogi and Hasan (2014) and Raghuvanshi (2014) who reported that the majority of the respondents were having small size land holding. 

    Majority of the respondents (47.1%) were having 4 to 9 years of farming experience, followed by 21.1% and 19.3% were having above 13 years and 10 to 13 years of farming experience. Moreover only 12.5% respondents had farming experience below 4 years.

    3.2.  Communication characteristics

    In the study of communication characteristics, mass media utilization, extension personnel contact and social participation were studied. The data is represented in Table 2.

    It was found that majority (78.6%) of respondents had medium level of mass media utilization, followed by 12.1% and 9.3% of respondents had high and low level of mass media utilization respectively. The findings are in line with the findings of Raghuvanshi (2014) who also found that majority of the respondents had medium level of mass media utilization.

    The majority (76.8%) of farm women had medium extension personnel contact; followed by 14.3% and 8.9% respondents had high and low extension personnel contact respectively. Similar results were found by Garai (2007), Gaikwad (2010) and Singh et al. (2012) where majority of the respondents had medium level of extension contact.

    It is conspicuous from the Table 2 that majority of the respondents (67.1%) had medium extent of social participation, followed by 21.1% and 11.8% had high and low extent of social participation. The result was similar to Yadav (2011) who found that maximum farmers had a medium level of social participation.


    Hasan (2014) and Raghuvanshi (2014) who reported that the majority of the respondents were having small size land holding. 

    Majority of the respondents (47.1%) were having 4 to 9 years of farming experience, followed by 21.1% and 19.3% were having above 13 years and 10 to 13 years of farming experience. Moreover only 12.5% respondents had farming experience below 4 years.

    3.2.  Communication characteristics

    In the study of communication characteristics, mass media utilization, extension personnel contact and social participation were studied. The data is represented in Table 2.

    It was found that majority (78.6%) of respondents had medium level of mass media utilization, followed by 12.1% and 9.3% of respondents had high and low level of mass media utilization respectively. The findings are in line with the findings of Raghuvanshi (2014) who also found that majority of the respondents had medium level of mass media utilization.

    The majority (76.8%) of farm women had medium extension personnel contact; followed by 14.3% and 8.9% respondents had high and low extension personnel contact respectively. Similar results were found by Garai (2007), Gaikwad (2010) and Singh et al. (2012) where majority of the respondents had medium level of extension contact.

    It is conspicuous from the Table 2 that majority of the respondents (67.1%) had medium extent of social participation, followed by 21.1% and 11.8% had high and low extent of social participation. The result was similar to Yadav (2011) who found that maximum farmers had a medium level of social participation.

    3.3.  Constraints faced by farm women

    Table 3 indicates the data of constraints faced by farm women in adoption of adaptation strategies related to climate change. The farm women reported the constraints such as inadequate/ limited knowledge concerning climate change & adaptation measures and lack of access to weather forecasting technology were ranked I with 75.7%. The findings are similar with the findings of Nzeadibe et al. (2011), Nayak  (2018) and Maddison (2007) who identified lack of knowledge as main constraints faced by respondents. Lack of training programs on adaptation to climate programs was ranked II with 68.6%. The findings are similar with the findings of Nayak  (2018), Yadav (2018) who found lack of training programs as major constraints. Lack of knowledge about government policies/programs and poor extension services related to climate change were assigned rank III by respondents with 65.4%. The findings are similar to the findings of Nayak (2018), Mutturaj (2017) who found poor extension service on climate risk management as major constraints. Non availability of extension officers/ workers or trainers on climate risk management was assigned rank IV by respondents with 63.9%. The findings are similar to Nzeadibe et al. (2017) who found irregularities of extension services as major constraint faced by respondents. Low level of literacy rate was assigned rank V by respondents with 63.2%. The findings are similar to Nayak (2018) and Shankar et al. (2013) who also found lack of literacy as a major constraint.  


    Lack of adequate resources for adaptation ranked VI with 53.9%. Needed information not received on time was the constraints which were assigned rank VII by respondents with 53.6%. Traditional beliefs and cultural norms was ranked VIII with 52.9%. Inadequate or high cost of irrigation facilities was ranked IX by the respondents with 52.5%. Non availability of timely inputs (seeds, chemicals, fertilizers etc.) ranked X with 52.1%. Lack of feedback between extension, research and clients/end users and distant location or poor access to the market ranked XI with 51.8%. Shortage of green fodder or grazing lands and lack of institutional support for cope up measures were ranked XII with 51.1%. Small size and fragmented landholdings ranked XIII with 50.4%. High cost and poor transportation facility ranked XIV with 50%. Shortage and high cost of agricultural input ranked XV with 49.6%. Poor knowledge on scientific dairy and livestock management ranked XVI with 46.8% Higher labor wage rate or shortage of labor ranked XVII with 46.4%. Lack of access to improved crop varieties to cope up climate variability ranked XVIII with 46.1%. Problems of soil and water erosion ranked XIX with 45.7%, similarly low price for produce in the markets and high cost of concentrate feed were ranked XX with 43.6%. Difficult to work in the fields due to severe temperature was ranked XXI with 18.6%.


  • Conclusion

    Farm women had faced major constraints in adaptation strategies towards climate change like inadequate/ limited knowledge concerning climate change & adaptation measures, lack of access to weather forecasting technology, lack of training programs on adaptation to climate programs, lack of government policies for preparedness and poor extension services related to climate change. Knowledge and skills should be provided to farm women regarding climate change and adaptation strategies by organizing training programs.


    Reference

  • Aggarwal, P.K., Singh, A.K., Samra, J.S., Singh, G., Gogoi, A.K., Rao, G.G.S.N., Ramakrishna, Y.S., 2009. Introduction. In: Aggarwal, P.K. (Ed.), Global climate change and indian agriculture. New Delhi: ICAR. p. 1–5.

    Anonymous, 2011. The state of food and agriculture 2010–2011: Women in agriculture, closing the gender gap for development. Rome: Author.

    Bishnoi, R., 2013. Vulnerabilities and adaptation strategies to climate change in Rajasthan: a gender perspective. An unpublished M.Sc. Thesis submitted to Agricultural Extension Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi.

    Brien, K.O., Leichenko, R., Kelkar,U., Venema, H., Aandahl, G., Tompkins, H., Javed, A., Bhadwal, S., Barg, S., Nygaard, L., West. J., 2004. Mapping vulnerability to multiple stressors: climate change and economic globalization in India. Global Environmental Change 14(4), 303–313.

    Carvajal-Escobar, Y., Quintero-Angel, M., Garcıa-Vargas, M., 2008. Women's role in adapting to climate change and variability. Advances in Geosciences 14, 277–280.

    Chukwuorji, J.C., Iorfa, S.K., Nzeadibe, T.C., Ifeagwazi, M.C., 2017. Role of climate change awareness and pro-environmental behaviour in subjective wellbeing. Nigerian Journal of Social Sciences 13(1), 39–48.

    Demetriades, J., Esplen, E., 2008. The gender dimensions of poverty and climate change adaptation. IDS Bull 39(4), 24–31.

    Dhawal, K.K., 2019. Knowledge and adoption level of camel owners about scientific management practices in arid zone of Rajasthan, M.V. Sc. Thesis, RAJUVAS, Bikaner.

    Dhawan, V., 2017.  Water and agriculture in India: background paper for the South Asia expert panel during the global forum for food and agriculture - (GFFA) 2017. OAV - German Asia-Pacific Business Association, 1–25.

    Diallo, I., Sylla, M.B., Giorgi, F., Gaye, A.T., Camera, M., 2012. Multimodal GCM-RCM ensemble-based projections of temperature and precipitation over West Africa for the early 21st century. International Journal of  Geophysics 19.

    Dieye, A.M., Roy, D.P., 2012. A study of rural Senegalese attitudes and perceptions of their behavior to the climate. Environ Manage 50(5), 929–941.

    Doss, C., 2011. If women hold up half the sky, how much of the world's food do they produce? (ESA Working Paper No. 11-04). Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

    Gaikwad, A.V., 2010. Dairy animal productivity enhancement programme in Ahmadnagar District of Maharashtra: an exploratory study. An unpublished M.Sc. Thesis submitted to National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana.

    Garai, S., 2007. Dairy farming among  santhal tribe women of Burdhman District (West Bengal). The unpublished M.Sc. thesis submitted to ICAR- National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana.

    International Labour Organization (ILO), 2016. Women at Work: Trends 2016. ILO Geneva.

    Kakota, T., Nyariki, D., Mkwambisi, D., Kogi-Makau, W., 2011. Gender vulnerability to climate variability and food insecurity. Climate and Development 3, 298–309.

    Kristjanson, P., Bryan, E., Bernier, Q., 2017. Addressing gender in agricultural research for development in the face of a changing climate: where are we and where should we be going? International Journal of Agriculture Sustainability, 1–19.

    Maddison, D.J., 2007. The Perception and adaptation to climate change in Africa. World Bank policy research working paper no.4308. The World Bank Development Research Group, Sustainable Rural and Urban Development Team, South Africa.

    Mertz, O., Mbow, C., Reenberg, A., 2011. Adaptation strategies and climate vulnerability in the Sudano-Sahelian region of West Africa. Atmospheric Science Letters 12,104–108.

    Nielsen, J.Q., Reenberg, A., 2010. Temporality and the problem with singling out climate as a current driver of change in a small West African Village. Journal of  Arid Environment  74(4), 464–474.

    Nelson, V., Stathers, T., 2009. Resilience, power, culture, and climate: A case study from semi-arid Tanzania, and new research directions. Gender and Development 17(1), 81–94.

    Nyasimi, M., Huyer, S., 2017. Closing the gender gap in agriculture under climate change. Agricultural Development 30, 37–40.

    Nayak, D., 2018. Farmer’s perception on climate change and its impact on agriculture in Jagatsinghpur District of Odisha. Thesis. Department of Extension Education. College of agriculture. Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology Bhubaneswar, Odisha.

    Nzeadibe, T.C., Egbule, C.L., Chukwuone, N.A., Agu, V.C., 2011. Farmers' perception of climate change governance and adaptation constraints in Niger delta region of Nigeria. African Technology Policy Studies Network 7, 1–26.

    Parry, M.L., Canziani, O.F., Palutiko, O.F., Van, J.P., Linden, P.J., Hanson, C.E., 2007. Contribution of working group II to the third assessment report of IPCC. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Peterman, A., Behrman, J., Quisumbing, A., 2010. A review of empirical evidence on gender differences in nonland agricultural inputs, technology, and services in developing countries (IFPRI Discussion Paper No. 00975). Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.

    Raghuvanshi, R., 2014. A study on awareness about climate change and  adaptation  of agricultural practices by farmers in Uttarakhand. The unpublished M.Sc. Thesis submitted to Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar.

    Rastogi, S., Hasan, S., 2014.  A study on communication behavior of agricultural input users of Udham Singh Nagar district of Uttarakhand, India. Journal of Applied and Natural Science 6(1), 193-196.

    Shankar, K.R., Nagasree, K., Sankar, G.R.M., Prasad, M.S., Raju, Rao, A.V.M.S., Venkateswarlu, B., 2013. Farmers perceptions and adaptation measures towards changing climate in South India and role of extension in adaptation and mitigation to changing climate. Extension Bulletin No.03/2013. Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad.

    Singh, S.K., Kolekar, D.V., Meena, H.R., 2012. Perception of livestock owners about impact of climate change on agriculture vis-a-vis animal husbandry in two agro climatic zones of North India. International Journal of Livestock Resource 2(2), 137-145.

    Thuiller, W., 2007. Climate change and the ecologist. Nature 448(7153), 550–552.

    Wright, H., Chandani, A., 2014. Gender in scaling up community based adaptation to climate change. In  Schipper, L.,  Ayers, J.,  Reid, H.,  Huq, S.,  Rahman, A., (Eds.), Community based adaptation to climate change: Scaling it up. New York, NY: Routledge, 226–238.

    Yadav, K., 2011. Impact assessment of ict- enabled knowledge sharing agri-portals in Uttarakhand. Indan Research Journal of Extension Education  3(2), 154-159.

    Yadav, M., Jagadeeswary, V., Satyanarayan, K., 2018. Adoption of climate – smart practices by small holder cattle farmers in central dry zone of Karnataka. 7th National conference on shaping livestock extension advisory services for doubling farmers income by IVEF & KVAFSU, Shimoga, 29-31st January 2018, 147.

Cite

1.
P A, ey , Arya P. Assessment of Constraints Faced by Farm Women in Adaptation Strategies towards Climate Change IJEP [Internet]. 12May.2022[cited 8Feb.2022];9(1):139-144. Available from: http://pphouse.org/ijep-article-details.php?art=326

People also read

Full Research

Soil Application Multi Micro Nutrient Fertilizer Mixtures (MMM) Influenced in Groundnut Yield

P. V. Mahatale, M. Y. Ladole, E. R. Vaidaya, N. K. Patke and G. S. Gaikwad

Fertilizer, groundnut, multi micro nutrient mixtures, soil application

Published Online : 28 May 2015

Full Research

Estimation of Phytochemicals from Mother Plants and In vitro Raised Plants of Gloriosa superba

Sneh Sharma, Bandna Devi and Vivek Sharma

In vitro, micropropagation, phytochemicals, secondary metabolites

Published Online : 19 Aug 2021

Demo Article Type

Demo Article Title

Demo Author Name

Demo Keyword

Published Online : 05 Apr 2018

Review Article

Biofortification of Pulses: Strategies and Challenges

Ummed Singh, C. S. Praharaj, S. S. Singh, Abhishek Bohra and Y. S. Shivay

Biofortification, hidden hunger, nutrients, pulsed

Published Online : 28 Aug 2015

Review Article

Role of Biotechnology in Biotic Stress Management in Crops

P. Ananda Kumar

Biotechnology, Biotic stress management, transgenic crop

Published Online : 28 May 2016